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~ Capital Improvements and Financing ~

Section 11



Continued development in the Township will require expansion of capital facilities to accommodate growth. This chapter describes the Districtwide capital expansions required for growth to 4,000 equivalent single-family residences (SFRs), including project timing and costs. Improvements described here would either be the responsibility of the Township or Mendocino County. In either case, funding responsibility would be passed back to the Township in the form of fees, assessments, or ongoing capital charges.

The improvements and costs described in this chapter form the basis for the financing plan later in the Specific Plan. Some of the improvements will benefit other developing areas in the vicinity of Brooktrails. Their share of these costs are allocated accordingly. Following an overview of the capital requirements, this chapter discusses the improvements in detail. In the conclusion, this chapter summarizes the capital costs, per-SFR costs, and projected years for major infrastructure items.

Capital expansions will be required for water, sewer, circulation, fire, maintenance, recreation, and District administrative facilities. Capital costs are separated into two categories -- ongoing and one-time -- in anticipation of the financing methods explored further in the financing section of the Specific Plan. Projects are also scheduled according to the level of development at which they would be required to indicate the growth thresholds at which the Township would need to incur major capital costs. In this manner, the facilities and financing discussions are not tied to a particular rate of growth, though the historical annual rate of 40 equivalent SFRs per year is used where it is useful to illustrate the years at which costs would be incurred. All costs are presented in current 1995 dollars,


and are taken from various preliminary engineering estimates prepared for the Township.

Water supply is the most immediate constraint facing Brooktrails, with the existing system reaching capacity at around 2,000 SFRs. Water infrastructure consists of development of additional water sources including wells, a new dam and reservoir, plus storage and treatment commensurate with the level of demand. The internal water distribution network already exists so, beyond maintaining the existing system, no further expansions are anticipated at this time. In addition to supplying water to the Specific Plan area, the Township supplies water to 69 lots at Spring Creek. Accordingly, all water supply costs have been adjusted to show the proportional share used by new development in the Specific Planning Area on an SFR basis.

Initially, the District could add wells to supply water up to 2,500 SFRs at a cost of $249,000. It is anticipated that a new dam would be required to supply the level of growth projected. The dam is shown in two stages which, combined, total $8.3 million. At about 2,000 SFRs of development, the District may begin preliminary work in preparation for dam construction.


Preliminary work would consist of engineering, refined environmental analysis, construction of access roads, and placement of the delivery system. Costs of these elements are estimated at about 20% of the $8.3 million total, or $1.67 million. Work on the dam itself would begin at about 2,500 SFRs. It is estimated to account for about 80% of the total, or $6.63 million.

Water treatment capacity is projected to be added in two stages, at 2,500 and 3,000 SFRs. Total cost of the treatment equipment necessary to serve up to 4,000 SFRs is estimated at $900,000. Brooktrails Township may be able to secure a federal Clean Water Grant that could be used to fund part of the costs. It is assumed here that about 25% of the treatment costs could be funded through a grant. Taking into account a small portion of the costs associated with water demand from users outside of the Specific Plan area leaves $673,000 to be funded from growth in the Specific Plan area. Costs of the first and second stages are estimated at $299,000 and $374,000, respectively.

Treated water storage amounts to adding tanks as needed, at a cost of roughly $150,000 to $200,000 per tank. These can be added in increments and are, thus, identified as an ongoing cost suitable to be funded out of development or connection fees. Through build-out, roughly 8 to 10 tanks will be needed for a total of $1.5 million. Table 11.1-1 summarizes the water infrastructure requirements. Costs of the projects shown total $10,700,000.

Table 11.1-1
Water Infrastructure Cost
Brooktrails Specific Plan Economic Analysis

Level of
Wells 2,000 $249,000
Dam Work Preliminary 2,000 1,656,000
Dam Construction 2,500 6,625,000
Water Treatment Stage 1 2,500 $299,000
Water Treatment Stage 2 3,000 374,000
Treated Storage Tanks Ongoing 1,497,000
Total $10,700,000
Source:Brooks & Vogel; Recht Hausrath & Associates


Development beyond 2,000 SFRs would require expansion of sewer capacity. Sewer improvements to serve up to 4,000 SFRs consist of one main from Brooktrails to the Willits treatment plant constructed in two stages. The first stage, an external reach from the Brooktrails metering station to the Willits plant, would be required at 2,000 SFRs at a cost of $600,000. Presumably, the construction would be done in conjunction with the S.R. 20 access route to realize economies in excavation costs. The second stage, an internal reach to the metering station, would be required around 3,000 SFRs of development. Given that this analysis is concerned with Districtwide infrastructure, no additional internal sewer lines are included here for the few areas of the Specific Planing area that presently lack sewer service. Sewer costs are summarized in Table 11.1-2.

Table 11.1-2
Sewer Infrastructure
Brooktrails Specific Plan Economic Analysis<
Level of
Sewers Main Stage 1 2,000 $600000
Sewers Main Stage 1 3,000 500,000
Treatment Capacity Ongoing 3,900,000
Source:Brooks & Vogel

Cost to expand the Willits sewer treatment plant to accommodate Brooktrails' growth is included as well. The $3.9 million is shown as an ongoing cost, paid on a per-SFR basis as development takes place through build-out. Costs shown here assume Willits would expand its present facility, though it has been proposed to switch to a different system altogether. If this were the case, the cost allocation would change accordingly.


Two circulation projects are anticipated for the near future, improvements to Sherwood Road and a second access route. The first project involves improvements to Sherwood Road, estimated at $500,000, including shoulders, turn pockets, and signals. The second project is the second access route, as established by the Brooktrails Board of Directors as the number one priority among infrastructure expansions. Accordingly, the second access is assigned priority, and would be constructed as soon as the planning, engineering, and financing can be put in place. At current rates of development, it is assumed that this construction could take place around 1,500 SFRs. The most probable second access alternative would be a direct route to S.R. 20, also identified as Route #3 in the Brooktrails Access Study prepared by TJKM Transportation Consultants in 1991. Costs include right-of-way acquisition, but exclude the actual interchange at S.R. 20, which could be funded by the State. At 2,500 SFRs modifications to the intersection of Main Street and Sherwood road will be needed, for which an allowance of $250,000 is included for intersection improvements. Signals are proposed to be added to the intersections of Clover Road/Primrose Drive and Primrose Drive/Sherwood Road prior to 4,000 SFRs. An additional signal at the intersection of the second access route and Primrose Drive may be necessary at some point in time, and is also included in the intersection improvements shown at 4,000 SFRs. Allowing for three signals at $125,000, costs for intersection improvements at 4,000 SFRs total $375,000. Three signals are at 2,500 SFRs for this. Table 11.1-3 details the circulation improvements.

Table 11.1-3
Circulation Infrastructure
Brooktrails Specific Plan Economic Analysis

Level of
Intersection Improvements, Stage 1 2,500 $250,000
Intersection Improvements, Stage 2 4,000 $375,000
Sherwood Road Improvements 1,500 500,000
2nd Access 1,500 $2,816,000
3rd Access 3,500 3,755,000
Total Ongoing $7,696,000
Source:Fehr & Peers


Traffic volumes generated by development of 4,000 SFRs would require a third access. Although the location of the third access is considered schematic at this time, the Upcreek Route, also known as Route #1 in the Brooktrails Access Study, is assumed for the purposes of the financing plan. An intertie between Sherwood Road and Primrose Drive has been considered as an alternative to the third access. If the State funds the U.S. 101 interchange, however, the cost of the third access is essentially the same as the intertie. Thus, it is assumed that the necessary improvements to U.S. 101 would be undertaken by the State such that the third access, the Upcreek Route, would be constructed instead of the intertie. Although Mendocino County would be the agency responsible for constructing the roads, it is assumed that properties in the Specific Plan area would be responsible for the cost.

The access routes will benefit the surrounding areas as well as Brooktrails. About 96 percent of the development benefitting from the access routes lies in Brooktrails. In terms of current estimates, the Specific Planning area's share of the costs are $2,816,000 for the second access route and $3,755,000 for the third access route for a total of $6,571,000 for both access routes. Combined, the total circulation improvement costs facing the Specific Planning area are $7,696,000, inclusive of two new access routes, Sherwood Road improvements and signals (see Table 11.1-7).

Table 11.1-4 details the fire facilities costs, as estimated by Brooktrails Township. The Township plans to add one new fire station, including a fire engine and water tender, before reaching the 2,000 SFR level of development. As with the water supply, Brooktrails will provide fire protection to growth outside of the Specific Plan area, though these areas amount to less than two percent of growth in fire protection demand. Total costs by 2,000 SFRs are estimated at $327,000. This, plus additional vehicles and equipment costing $249,000, would support development up to about 3,500 SFRs. Development at 4,000 SFRs would require a second additional station plus another engine and staff car, totaling $306,000. For all fire improvements, the Specific Plan area's share of fire facilities cost is $882,000 through build-out of 4,000 SFRs.


Table 11.1-4
Fire Facilities
Brooktrails Specific Plan Economic Analysis

Level of
Additional Station #1 2,000 $94,000
Additional Station #2 4,000 $74,000
Fire Vehicles #1 2,000 233,000
Fire Vehicles #2 2,500 82,000
Fire Vehicles #3 3,500 1,67,000
Fire Vehicles #4 4,000 232,000
Total $882,000
Source: Brooktrails TCSD

In addition to the fire stations shown in Table 11.1-4, Brooktrails Township anticipates an additional station to serve development in the vicinity of the airport constructed in the near-term. Beyond serving areas of Brooktrails, the proposed Airport Area station would provide back-up to the City of Willits and the Little Lake Fire District. Accordingly, it is proposed that the other jurisdictions would share in the cost. The Airport Area station is needed in the absence of new development, such that its costs are not included among the fire facilities related to growth.

Other Improvements
Beyond the four major areas of facilities described above, additional expansion of the District's capital will be required to support a larger service population. Capital requirements estimated at $2,500 per SFR are projected on an ongoing basis. Using the District's five-year Capital Improvement Program (CIP) as a guideline, this allowance would include a number of improvements, as detailed in Table 11.1-5. Water improvements refer primarily to fire hydrants installed as growth required with an allowance for ongoing engineering. Sewer improvements shown in the CIP relate to lift stations plus an engineering allowance. Parks and recreation improvements are assigned a cost of $200 per SFR. Although the Township's drainage


Table 11.1-5
Maintenance and Other Capital

Brooktrails Specific Plan Economic Analysis

Level of Development Cost
Maintenance Shop $2,000 $150,000
Other District Capital Ongoing 6,625,000
Total $6,775,000
Source:Brooktrails TCSD; Recht Hausrath & Associates.

infrastructure is in place, some incidental drainage improvements may be needed to handle the increased run-off from growth. The drainage allowance assumed here is $100 per SFR. District administration would apply to planning and growth administration activities as well as furnishings and equipment. The maintenance department will similarly need additional tools and equipment to meet the demands of a higher service population. Contingencies of $600 per SFR are included as well.

In addition to the ongoing requirements, an expanded maintenance shop is included in this category as well. This facility is listed in the District's CIP and, for the purposes of this analysis, is scheduled at 2,000 SFRs. Other District capital is summarized in Table 11.1-6.

Table 11.1-6
Other Ongoing District Capital

Brooktrails Specific Plan Economic Analysis

Cost per SFR
Water $2,000 $150,000
Sewer Ongoing 6,625,000
Park & Recreation $6,775,000
Admin. & Planning
Source:Brooktrails Capital Improvement Plan , 1995 - 96;
Recht Hausrath & Associates.


Infrastructure Summary
A summary of infrastructure requirements, including timing and costs in thousands, is shown in Table 11.1-7. Based on the estimates, Brooktrails capital improvements are projected to total $31.05 million to support growth to 4,000 SFRs. Of this, $12.02 million will be added incrementally as demand requires. The remaining $19.03 million constitute major one-time capital expansions.

Table 11.1-7
Summary of Capital Improvements

Brooktrails Specific Plan Economic Analysis

Level of Developement, SFRs

(Costs in Thousands) Ongoing 1,500 2,000 2,500 3,000 3,500 4,000
WATER SUPPLY                
Wells $0 $0 $249 $0 $0 $0 $0 $249
Dam Preliminary Work 0 0 1,656 0 0 0 0 1,656
Dam Construction 0 0 0 6,625 0 0 0 6,625
Water Treatment 0 0 0 299 374 0 0 673
Treated Storage (Tanks) 1,497 0 0 0 0 0 0 1,497
Total $1,497 $0 $1,905 $6,924 $374 $0 $0 $10,700
Sewer Mains $0 $0 $600 $0 $500 $0 $0 $1,100
Treatment Capacity $3,900 0 0 0 0 0 0 $3,900
$3,900 $0 $600 $0 $500 $0 $0 $5,000
Intersection Improvements $0 $0 $0 $250 $0 $0 $375 $625
Sherwood Road Improvements 0 500 0 0 0 0 0 500
2nd Access Route 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2,816
3 rd Access Route 0 2,816 0 0 0 3,755 0 3,755
$0 $3,316 $0 $250 $0 $3,755 $375 $7,696
Stations $0 $0 $94 $0 $0 $0 $74 $168
Vehicles and Equipment 0 0 233 82 0 167 232 714
$0 $0 $327 $82 $0 $167 $306 $882
Facilities and Equipment $6,625 $0 $150 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0
TOTAL $12,022 $3,316 $2,982 $7,256 $874 $3,922 $681 $31,053
Source:Brooktrails Township; Brooks & Vogel; Recht Fehr & Peers; Hausrath & Associates.


Cost per SFR

Costs are allocated on the basis of SFRs in Table 11.1-8, and are divided into three allocation tiers - (1) existing development, (2) new development from 1,350 to 2,000 SFRs, and (3) new development from 2,000 SFRs to buildout. The tiers are cumulative such that the second tier is allocated the amount of the first tier plus the cost of the additional improvements to serve growth from 1,350 to 2,000 SFRs. Similarly, development above 2,000 SFRs is allocated the amount of the second tier plus the costs of improvements to support growth from 2,000 to 4,000 SFRs.

Figure 11.1-8
Cost per SFR
Brooktrails Specific Plan Economic Analysis

to New
to New
Allocated to
Specific Plan
from 1,350 to
above 2,000
Area Costs
2,000 SFRs,
SFRs in Allocation Category 1,350 650 2,000
Water Treatment $673,000 $0 $0 $337
Water Storage $1,497,000 0 565 565
Wells & Dam 8,530,000 0 0 4,265
Sewer Treatment 3,900,000 0 1,472 1,472
Sewer Mains 1,100,000 0 0 550
Access Routes & Sherwood Road 7,071,000 1,768 1,768 1,768
Intersection Improvements 625,000 0 236 236
Fire 882,000 0 0 441
Maintenance Shop 150,000 0 0 75
Other 6,625,000 0 2,500 2,500
31,053,000 $1,768 $6,541 $12,209
Source: Town Hall Services

The first tier, existing development, is allocated a share of the access routes and Sherwood Road improvements, since these will benefit all residents of Brooktrails, existing and new, particularly in the event of an emergency evacuation. The first tier costs amount to $1,768 per SFR. The second cost allocation tier, new development from 1,350 to 2,000 SFRs, includes the improvements needed to serve growth to 2,000 SFRs. The second tier allocation includes the circulation improvement costs in the first tier plus water storage, sewer treatment, intersection


improvements, and other improvements needed to serve this increment of growth. Capital costs

per SFR associated with development from 1,350 to 2,000 SFRs is $6,541. The third tier includes all costs of the second tier plus expansion of the water supply and treatment capacity, sewer mains, fire protection, and maintenance shop needed to support growth from 2,000 to 4,000 SFRs. Costs associated with growth above 2,000 SFRs totals $12,209.

Average Cost per SFR
Average cost per SFR is also calculated here for use later in the economic analysis where the distinction between new development before and after 2,000 SFRs is not an issue. The overall cost to serve growth excludes the share of the access routes, roughly $2.4 million, allocated to new development. This leaves roughly $28.7 million in improvements costs assigned to growth. Spread across all 2,650 SFRs of new development, the average cost overall is $10,819 per SFR.

To this point, the infrastructure discussion has been in terms of development levels at which expansions would be required. Given that the analysis is conducted in constant 1995 dollars, timing would not affect the project costs or the conclusions of the analysis as presented. Still, it is of interest to indicate the years at which major improvements would be constructed; major improvements are defined here as one-time projects costing more than one million dollars. Figure 11.1-1 shows the time line for constructing the dam and the access routes plus an indication of the build-out year under average annual absorption of 30, 40, 50, and 60 SFRs per year.

The second access route would be required in the near-term regardless of the rate of development. For the rates of development shown, 2,500 SFRs would be reached between years 2014 and 2033. At this time, the dam construction would take place, the preliminary work having been completed. The second sewer line would be added at 3,000 SFRs, though not shown in the figure. At 3,500 SFRs, reached between year 2030 and 2066, the third access route would be needed. Build-out of the Specific Plan area would occur around year 2039 if 60 SFRs were developed per year, or as late as year 2083 if the development rate was only 30 SFRs annually.

pg-1.1-12 Figure 11.1-1

Years of Major Capital Projects
Brooktrails Specific Plan Economic Analysis

Depending upon the rates of development, infrastructure projects for the Specific Plan area would stretch well into the next century. Beyond the near-term circulation improvements, the next phase of major construction at around 2,000 SFRs is 10 to 20 years off. Though, in most cases, the capital needs are not immediate, addressing the future requirements now will allow time to review and establish the necessary programs to anticipate growing public service demands. As the time to construct each series of improvement approaches, the requirements and costs will be revised to prepare for financing and construction of the expanded infrastructure needed for growth.

Development to 5,000 SFRs
The Specific Plan focuses on the preferred study alternative of 4,000 SFRs. This level of maximum development is contingent upon Brooktrails achieving the necessary level of development reduction. (Development reduction is further discussed in the next section, Section 11.2, Development Reduction.) In the event that new development exceeds the 4,000-SFR limit, additional infrastructure expansions will be required. Development of 5,000 SFRs approaches the reasonable maximum level of potential development in the absence of any development reduction activities, given the various constraints facing a number of lots in the Specific Planing area. To address this possibility, a 5,000-SFR scenario is briefly considered here.


Table 11.1-9 estimates capital costs estimated to support development of 5,000 SFRs. The 4,000- SFR costs shown in the table are based on the allocation to new development presented above in Table 11.1-8.

Table 11.1-9Infrastructure Costs to Serve 5,000 SFRsBrooktrails Specific Plan Economic Analysis

Cost per New Development SFR $10,819
SFRs developed 2,650
New Development Cost to Serve 4,000 SFRs $28,670,000

New Development Cost to Serve 4,000 SFRs $28,670,000
Additional Costs to Serve 5,000 SFRs 6,000
Water $1,000,000
Sewer 3,100,000
Fire 253000
Other District Capital 2,500,000
Total $6,853,000
Total Costs to Serve 5,000 SFRs $35,523,000

Total Costs to Serve 5,000 SFRs $35,523,000
New Development SFRs 3,650
Total Cost per New Development SFR $9,732

Source: Recht Hausrath & Associates

Expanding to 5,000 SFRs, the projects and their costs are similar to the 4,000-SFR scenario. Water and sewer improvements would have to be sized according to the higher level of demand. Traffic improvements under the 4,000-SFR scenario would support 5,000 SFRs; thus, no additional cost is shown. The additional 1,000 SFRs, however, would trigger the need for a third additional fire station plus vehicles related to serving growth. Costs of other District capital is shown to increase according to the allowance of $2,500 per SFR. Incremental costs are estimated at $6,853,000 to increase infrastructure capacity from 4,000 SFRs to 5,000 SFRs. Total costs to support the 5,000-SFR level of development is estimated at $35,523,000. Spreading this amount across the 3,650 new development SFRs under the 5,000-SFR scenario equals a cost per SFR of $9,732. This is roughly $1,100 lower than the per SFR cost of $10,819 estimated for the preferred 4,000-SFR alternative being considered in the Specific Plan. The difference in cost has two components. First, there will be economies in sizing infrastructure for a larger capacity. Second, certain improvements constructed for 4,000 SFRs, namely the traffic improvements, will not have to be expanded proportionally to serve an additional 1,000 SFRs.

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